Dry eye disease is most commonly caused by a deficiency in one or more areas of the tear film. The tear film, or tears, are made up of three separate layers: Mucin, Aqueous and Lipid
The name “dry eye” can be a little confusing since one of the most common symptoms involve excessive watering!
It makes more sense, though, when you learn that the eye makes two different types of tears.
The first type, called lubricating tears, is produced slowly and steadily throughout the day. Lubricating tears contain a precise balance of mucous, water, oil, nutrient proteins, and antibodies that nourish and protect the front surface of the eye.
The second type of tear, called a reflex tear, does not have much lubricating value. Reflex tears serve as a kind of emergency response to flood the eye when it is suddenly irritated or injured. Reflex tears might occur when you get something in your eye, when you’re cutting onions, when you’re around smoke, or when you accidentally scratch your eye.
The reflex tears gush out in such large quantities that the tear drainage system can’t handle them all and they spill out onto your cheek. Still another cause of reflex tearing is irritation of the eye from lack of lubricating tears. If your eye is not producing enough lubricating tears, you have dry eye.
Signs of Dry Eyes:
- Red Eyes
- Foreign Body Sensation
- Sandy/Gritty Feeling
- Light Sensitivity
- Watery Eyes
- Pain/Soreness in or Around the Eyes
- Red/Irritated Eyelids
- Tired Eyes
- Contact Lens Discomfort
- Dry Mouth
Common Causes of Dry Eyes:
- Aging. Even though anyone can have dry eye, this condition becomes more common the older you get.
- Medications such as high blood pressure meds, anti-histamine, cholesterol meds, anti-depressants, anti-inflammation meds
- Computer use with reduced blinking
- Laser eye surgery ( LASIK & PRK)
- Vitamin A deficiency
- Environmental – wind, weather, elements
- Sjögren’s syndrome
- Auto Immune Diseases
- Low Humidity like living in Alaska!
- Contact Lenses Wear
- Rheumatoid arthritis or thyroid disease
- Frequent Flying on airplanes
- Glaucoma eyedrops
- Makeup and Eye makeups
- Eyelash extensions
For the majority of Dry Eye sufferers, the actual underlying cause is Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.
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